Glossary of Terms

Specific terms commonly used in reference to Rare Color English Bulldogs

 
Please suggest terms that you would like defined in this section, by emailing us @ rarebulldogs@gmail.com
AGOUTI Recessive black. In bulldogs this would dna as atat, ayat, or ayay
ALLELE One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. EX: dilute has 2 alleles, D and d. ***see VARIANT
BLACK AND TAN Black and Tan with minimal white only on the chest. Body is solid black with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail.
BLACK BASE This would be a dog with full black at agouti, ie atat, and a full or carrier at dominant black, ie KN ro KK  when the dominant black is expressed as Seal. This Black base is needed in order to produce true, vivid colors in lue of these colors in fawn or sable. In  black base dogs, the genes that change color affect the coat and not just the  nose, eyeliner, pad color. Note: Seal base may be muted and not vivid.
BLACK BRINDLE Black and Fawn Stripes with or without white markings in any design. Brindle dogs carry at least one Kbr gene and are always either ayay, or ayat at agouti. Brindled bodied dogs cannot have a Kb gene nor be atat.
BLACK BRINDLE MERLE Black Merle with or without white in any design with the added K gene being brindle. Diluted hair appears blue. Black Merles are incorrectly called Blue Merles in many instances. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is black. Note: these dogs can appear only brindle, only merle, or a combo of the two.
BLACK MERLE Black Merle with or without white in any design. Diluted hair appears blue. Black Merles are incorrectly called Blue Merles in many instances. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is black.
BLACK MERLE TRI Black, Tan, and white in any pattern with random diluted patches. Body is black merle and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is black. Note: The black merle or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be black merle tri genetically.
BLACK PLATINUM A white dog with little(10% or less) or no patches of black on the fur. This dog will DNA atat or K, with K being SEAL (see Dominant Black). White is not a color, but is lack of pigment. ****see definition of WHITE and PLATINUM.
BLACK  SEAL Black or Black and White in any Design. This dog will DNA as K, with the K being SEAL.
BLACK TRI Black, Tan, and white in any pattern. Body is black and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The black or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be black tri genetically.
BLACK TRINDLE Black, Trindle, and white in any pattern. The tan portions on the dog will be brindled, thus called Trindle. Body is black and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The black or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be black trindle genetically.
BROWN Brown hair color on a dog called chocolate and sometimes liver.
BLUE AND TAN Blue and Tan with minimal white only on the chest. Body is solid blue with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail.
BLUE BRINDLE Blue and Fawn Stripes with or without white markings in any design. Brindle dogs carry at least one Kbr gene and are always either ayay, or ayat at agouti. Brindled bodied dogs cannot have a Kb gene nor be atat.
BLUE BRINDLE MERLE Blue Merle with or without white in any design with the added K gene being brindle. Diluted hair appears lighter blue. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is blue. Note: these dogs can appear only brindle, only merle, or a combo of the two.
BLUE FAWN Fawn color fur with nose, eyeliner, & foot pads being blue or gray with light to dark tonal value.
BLUE GHOST MERLE Fawn/Sable color fur with nose, eyeliner, & foot pads being blue or gray with light to dark tonal value, and visible faint merle patches when young. These merle patches fade into the fawn/sable coat and are not  visible at adulthood in most instances.
BLUE MERLE Blue Merle with or without white in any design. Diluted hair appears lighter blue. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is blue.
BLUE MERLE TRI Blue, Tan, and white in any pattern with random diluted patches. Body is blue merle and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Diluted hair appears lighter blue. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is blue. Note: The blue merle or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be blue merle tri genetically.
BLUE PLATINUM A white dog with little(10% or less) or no patches of blue on the fur. This dog will DNA dd. White is not a color, but is a lack of pigment. ****see definition of WHITE and PLATINUM.
BLUE SABLE A dog with Fawn colored hair, sometimes with blue tips. Blue etching is often seen around the eyes, throughout the coat, on the tail, and feet. The pigment on the nose, pads, and eyeliner will be blue. Some of these dogs will show tan points. It is not known why the tan points bleed through on some Sables and not others.
BLUE SEAL Blue or Blue and White in any Design. This dog will DNA as dd K, with the K being SEAL.
BLUE TRI Blue, Tan, and white in any pattern. Body is blue and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The blue or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be blue tri genetically.
BLUE TRINDLE Blue, Trindle, and white in any pattern. The tan portions on the dog will be brindled, thus called Trindle. Body is blue and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The blue or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be blue trindle genetically.
BULLDOG An AKC registered purebred breed, in most instances referred to as an "English Bulldog".
CARRIER Every gene has 2 sides. When one side is positive and one side is negative, then the dog is considered a carrier of that trait, whether it be color, pattern, disease, etc. a carrier dog will pass on the carrier gene at a rate of 50% on each individual puppy born.
CHOCOLATE AND TAN Chocolate and Tan with minimal white only on the chest. Body is solid chocolate with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail.
CHOCOLATE BRINDLE Chocolate and Fawn Stripes with or without white markings in any design. Brindle dogs carry at least one Kbr gene and are always either ayay, or ayat at agouti. Brindled bodied dogs cannot have a Kb gene nor be atat.
CHOCOLATE BRINDLE MERLE Chocolate Merle with or without white in any design with the added K gene being brindle. Diluted hair appears lighter chocolate. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is xhoxolatek. Note: these dogs can appear only brindle, only merle, or a combo of the two.
CHOCOLATE FAWN Fawn color fur with nose, eyeliner, & foot pads being chocolate with light to dark tonal value.
CHOCOLATE GHOST MERLE Fawn/Sable color fur with nose, eyeliner, & foot pads being chocolate with light to dark tonal value, and visible faint merle patches when young. These merle patches fade into the fawn/sable coat and are not  visible at adulthood in most instances.
CHOCOLATE MERLE Chocolate Merle with or without white in any design. Diluted hair appears lighter chocolate. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is chocolate.
CHOCOLATE MERLE TRI Chocolate, Tan, and white in any pattern with random diluted patches. Body is chocolate merle and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is chocolate. Note: The chocolate merle or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be chocolate merle tri genetically
CHOCOLATE PLATINUM A white dog with little(10% or less) or no patches of chocolate on the fur. This dog will DNA bb. White is not a color, but is a lack of pigment. ****see definition of WHITE and PLATINUM.
CHOCOLATE SABLE A dog with Fawn colored hair, sometimes with chocolate tips. Chocolate etching is often seen around the eyes, throughout the coat, on the tail, and feet. The pigment on the nose, pads, and eyeliner will be chocolate. Some of these dogs will show tan points. It is not known why the tan points bleed through on some Sables and not others.
CHOCOLATE SEAL Chocolate or Chocolate and White in any Design. This dog will DNA as bb K, with the K being SEAL.
CHOCOLATE TRI Chocolate, Tan, and white in any pattern. Body is chocolate and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The chocolate or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be chocolate tri genetically.
CHOCOLATE TRINDLE Chocolate, Trindle, and white in any pattern. The tan portions on the dog will be brindled, thus called Trindle. Body is chocolate and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The chocolate or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be chocolate trindle genetically.
CLEAR SABLE  A Sable dog with no dark hairs in its coat. Clear sables are almost indistinguishable from recessive reds.
NOTE: Clear sable can hide merle as effectively as recessive red, although this is not the case 100% of the time.
CRYPTIC MERLE Cryptic Merle is a scientific term used for the Merle Gene with a shorter poly-a tail. This term is incorrectly used to define a Phantom or Ghost Merle. which usually has the longer poly-a tail, but does not present on the dog for lack of black base. Cryptic Merle should only be used when the Merle dog has been DNA'd with a positive Mc gene.
DILUTE A gene that dilutes black coat color in dogs to gray or blue. Dilute dogs will DNA as dd.
DOMINANT BLACK A gene that can produce black seal or brindle. The Seal or Brindle has to be determined visually. 
DOUBLE MERLE A dog with full Merle (MM). Double merles are predominantly white. The merle patches tend to be on the upper body. They may or may not have the spotting gene. Sometimes double merles are 100% white.
ENGLISH BULLDOG An AKC registered purebred Bulldog. Correctly stated as simply, Bulldog. Most people know the AKC Bulldog as an English or British Bulldog, therefore most breeders use the term English Bulldog.
FAWN A dog with fawn colored hair that can vary from almost white to darker shades of fawn, red, orange, etc.
FULL Every gene has 2 sides. When both sides are positive,  the dog is considered a Full or Double for that trait, whether it be color, pattern, disease, etc. A Full Trait dog will pass on one copy of that trait to every puppy born.
FULL BODY SUIT Any Color and Tan with minimal white ONLY on the head and chest.
FULL SUIT Any Color and Tan with no white or minimal white ONLY on the chest.
GENOTYPE A dogs genotype is its complete heritable genetic identity However, the word genotype can also refer just to a particular gene or set of genes carried by an individual dog.
GHOST MERLE Synonymous with the term Phantom Merle. A Merle dog without a black base, that is not visibly merle. The Merle gene only visibly affects a black based dog, thus the term Ghost Merle.

This is not to be confused with Cryptic Merle, which is a scientific term used for the Merle Gene with a shorter poly-a tail.
LETHAL WHITE Double merles are often referred to as "lethal whites". This is totally incorrect term as Lethal white is a completely separate gene that does not occur in dogs, but in horses. The merle gene is not lethal, however it can be problematic if doubled in some breeds.
LILAC AND TAN Lilac and Tan with minimal white only on the chest. Body is solid lilac with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail.
LILAC BRINDLE Lilac and Fawn Stripes with or without white markings in any design. Brindle dogs carry at least one Kbr gene and are always either ayay, or ayat at agouti. Brindled bodied dogs cannot have a Kb gene nor be atat.
LILAC BRINDLE MERLE Lilac Merle with or without white in any design with the added K gene being brindle. Diluted hair appears Lilac or almost white. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is lilac. Note: these dogs can appear only brindle, only merle, or a combo of the two.
LILAC FAWN Fawn color fur with nose, eyeliner, & foot pads being lilac or gray with light to dark tonal value.
LILAC GHOST MERLE Fawn/Sable color fur with nose, eyeliner, & foot pads being lilac or gray with light to dark tonal value, and visible faint merle patches when young. These merle patches fade into the fawn/sable coat and are not  visible at adulthood in most instances.
LILAC MERLE Lilac Merle with or without white in any design. Diluted hair appears lighter Lilac. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is lilac.
LILAC MERLE TRI Lilac, Tan, and white in any pattern with random diluted patches. Body is lilac merle and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Patches, nose, footpads, and eyeliner is lilac. Note: The lilac merle or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be lilac merle tri genetically
LILAC PLATINUM A white dog with little(10% or less) or no patches of lilac on the fur. This dog will DNA bb dd. White is not a color, but is a lack of pigment. ****see definition of WHITE and PLATINUM.
LILAC SABLE A dog with Fawn colored hair, sometimes with lilac tips. Lilac etching is often seen around the eyes, throughout the coat, on the tail, and feet. The pigment on the nose, pads, and eyeliner will be lilac. Some of these dogs will show tan points. It is not known why the tan points bleed through on some Sables and not others.
LILAC SEAL Lilac or Lilac and White in any Design. This dog will DNA as bb dd K, with the K being SEAL.
LILAC TRI Lilac, Tan, and white in any pattern. Body is lilac and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The lilac or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be lilac tri genetically.
LILAC TRINDLE Lilac, Trindle, and white in any pattern. The tan portions on the dog will be brindled, thus called Trindle. Body is lilac and white with tan markings on the eyebrows, cheeks, front chest, legs, and under the tail. Note: The lilac or tan will not show where the dog is white but will be lilac trindle genetically.
MERLE This gene produces dogs with irregularly shaped patches of diluted pigment and solid color in the fur. The patches can have jagged edges and can be small dots to very large patches of fur. The diluted parts of the fur are a lighter version of the original fur color.
NON-CARRIER Every gene has 2 sides. When both sides are negative,  the dog is considered a non carrier for that trait, whether it be color, pattern, disease, etc. A non-carrier dog will never pass on that trait to any puppy born.
PATCHWORK MERLE A Merle dog with different color spots in the coat. The merle gene is unstable and can sometimes partially dilute some of the patches in the coat, which would be somewhere between the base coat color and the patch color. They may sometimes appear brownish. This term is synonymous with the term "Tweed Merle".
PHANTOM MERLE Synonymous with the term Ghost Merle. A Merle dog without a black base, that is not visibly merle. The Merle gene only visibly affects a black based dog, thus the term Phantom Merle.

This is not to be confused with Cryptic Merle, which is a scientific term used for the Merle Gene with a shorter poly-a tail.
PIEBALD A white spotting pattern that does not have a uniform genetic basis. Some white patterns are symmetrical, some are not, and some dogs are all white. ***see WHITE
PLATINUM A white dog with little(10% or less) or no patches of color on the fur. White is not a color, but is lack of pigment. ****see definition of WHITE.
QUAD or QUAD Producer This term denotes colors the dog is capable of producing. There are 4 Rare Colors in English Bulldogs, which are Lilac, Blue, Chocolate, and Black. QUAD means 4.  A QUAD dog can produce all 4 of the Rare Colors. QUAD does not represent the the DNA of a dog, but rather its producing capability.
NOTE: a QUAD dog can be any color.
SABLE A dog with Fawn colored hair, sometime with black tips. Black etching is often seen around the eyes, throughout the coat, on the tail, and feet. Some of these dogs will show tan points. It is not known why the tan points bleed through on some Sables and not others.
TAN POINT Doberman/Rottweiler type tan markings that appear on the eyebrows, sides of cheeks, lower legs, front chest, and under the tail. If the dog is white in these areas, or is a SEAL, the tan points will not show, but will be hidden. The terms Tan Point and Tri are interchangeable.
TRI Indicating the Tan Points on an EB. The dog must carry 2 copies of [atat] to be a Tri.

Depicts that a dog has tan points/markings. Also indicates the dog would DNA [atat] at agouti, even if the tan points are hidden.

**This term was originally meant to indicate 3 colors on a dog, but so many people use the term to indicate the tan markings-Doberman type-on the EB, that to hold down confusion, this is the official way we use it now.
TRIPLE CARRIER A person could argue that any dog is a triple carrier since there are upward of 13 color genes and modifiers. For the purpose of this chart for AKC Bulldogs, the term Triple Carrier denotes the dna of the dog, specifically a dog that carries at least one (d), one (b), & one (at), no matter what the color of the dog.
TWEED MERLE A Merle dog with different color spots in the coat. The merle gene is unstable and can sometimes partially dilute some of the patches in the coat, which would be somewhere between the base coat color and the patch color. They may sometimes appear brownish. This term is synonymous with the term "Tweed Merle".
VARIANTS One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. EX: dilute has 2 alleles, D and d. ***see ALLELE
WHITE Not a color, but rather, lack of pigment. White will extract any color or pattern from the dogs fur wherever it appears. This dog will still dna for its appropriate color and/or pattern, whatever that may be, and is capable of producing that color in addition to white. ***see PIEBALD
   
 
 
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